## Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two- point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

### Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes Electric charges, Force, Field, Dipole, Gauss Theorem, Electric Flux

Here are some notes on electric charges and Coulomb's law:

#### Electric Charges:

- All matter is made up of atoms, which contain subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons.- Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have no charge, and electrons have a negative charge.

- Like charges repel each other, and opposite charges attract each other.

- When electrons are transferred from one object to another, the objects become charged.

- If an object loses electrons, it becomes positively charged, and if it gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged.

#### Coulomb's Law:

- Coulomb's law states that the force between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.- The equation for Coulomb's law is F = k * (q1*q2)/r^2, where F is the force, q1 and q2 are the charges, r is the distance between them, and k is the Coulomb constant.

- The Coulomb constant, k, is a constant that depends on the units used for charge, distance, and force.

- The force between two charges is strongest when they are close together and decreases as the distance between them increases.

- Coulomb's law applies to both point charges and charged objects with finite size.

Sure! Here are some notes on the conservation of electric charge.

#### Conservation of Electric Charge:

- The principle of conservation of electric charge states that the total electric charge in a closed system remains constant over time.

- This means that electric charge cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one object to another.

- The conservation of electric charge is a fundamental law of nature and applies to all charged particles, including electrons, protons, and ions.

- Charge can be transferred from one object to another through various methods, such as friction, contact, or induction.

- For example, when a rubber balloon is rubbed against a wool sweater, electrons are transferred from the sweater to the balloon, causing the balloon to become negatively charged and the sweater to become positively charged.

- The total amount of charge in the system remains the same, but the distribution of charge has changed.

- The conservation of electric charge has many important applications, including in the design of electrical circuits, the study of electromagnetic fields, and the development of modern technologies such as computers and smartphones.

I hope these notes are helpful! Let me know if you have any questions.

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