Central Board of Secondary Education has released the 12th class Physics syllabus or curriculum for the students pursuing Science stream under CBSE Board in the 2023-2024 session. The curriculum is designed in such a way as to emphasise on basic conceptual understanding of Physics, use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards, providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. It contains the course structure, course content, typology of questions, etc. Students can check the complete contents of the syllabus and download the CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023-24 PDF from this article.

## Unit I: Electrostatics [26 Periods]

#### Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between
two- point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle
and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric
dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric
field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field
due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

#### Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point
charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical
potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in
an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a
conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance,
combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel
plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

## Unit II: Current Electricity [18 Periods]

#### Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift
velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, V-I
characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power,
electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of
resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a
cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's rules,
Wheatstone bridge.

## Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism [25 Periods]

#### Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment.
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight
solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform
magnetic and electric fields.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere,
torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop
as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil
galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and
voltmeter.

#### Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment
only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along
its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a
magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative
treatment only), magnetic field lines.
Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro -
magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials,
effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

## Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents [24 Periods]

#### Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current;
Lenz's Law, Self and mutual induction.

#### Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage;
reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance,
power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.
AC generator, Transformer.

## Unit V: Electromagnetic waves [04 Periods]

#### Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their
characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative idea only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

## Unit VI: Optics [30 Periods]

#### Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction
of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification,
power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light
through a prism.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting
and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

#### Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction
of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of
reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young's
double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final
expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light,
diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment
only).

## Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter [08 Periods]

#### Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's
observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Experimental study of photoelectric effect
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

## Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei [15 Periods]

#### Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr
model of hydrogen atom, Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity
and energy of electron in nth orbit, hydrogen line spectra (qualitative
treatment only).

#### Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its
variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

## Unit IX: Electronic Devices [10 Periods]

#### Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and
Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative
ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction
Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse
bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

## Experiments

### SECTION–A

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential
difference versus current.

2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.

3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its
figure of merit.

5. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a
voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.

OR

To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an
ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

## Activities

1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity
of a given circuit using multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a
fuse and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery,
resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not
connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

### SECTION-B

## Experiments

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find
the focal length.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.

3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v
or between 1/u and 1/v.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph
between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.

6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

7. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane mirror.

8. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.

9. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and
reverse bias.

## Activities

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of
such items.

2. Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an
LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working
order.

3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a
glass slab.

5. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

6. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, or (ii)
concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different
distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

7. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses
from the given set of lenses.

## Suggested Investigatory Projects

1. To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.

2. To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of
a variation in
(a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to 'illuminate' the LDR (keeping
all the lamps at a fixed distance).
(b) the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to 'illuminate'
the LDR.

3. To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror,
an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an
adjustable object needle.

4. To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii)
number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed
transformer.

5. To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence
using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.

6. To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith)
balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb's law.

7. To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the
effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an
A.C. source of adjustable frequency.

8. To study the earth's magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting
magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

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